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PART A: Vocabulary

Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3) or (4) that best completes each sentence. Then

mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

PART A: Vocabulary

1- When the meeting was over, the audience ---------.

1) dispersed        2) deformed

3) denoted          4) delineated

2- Many countries -------- The killing of innocent people.

1) detained       2) deplored

3) granted        4) grounded

3- The regulations --------- That everything has to be based on safety standards.

1) perceive     2) specify

3) rejoin       4) materialize

4- UN officials -------- between the rebel fighters and.

1) persuaded     2) debated

3) mediated       4) negotiated

5- We have the computer at our --------- For the whole month.

1) treatment      2) disposal

3) vacancy        4) maintenance

6- The --------- of the economic crisis was that many factories were closed down.

1) misconduct    2) erosion

3) upshot          4) circumstance

7- Many refugees crossed the --------- between Iraq and Turkey.

1) drawback      2) frontier

3) scratch          4) threshold

8- All the care are tested for possible -------- Before they leave the factory.

1) ingredients    2) factions

3) defects         4) diversities

9- Providing good service is --------- To a successful business.

1) intrinsic       2) intense

3) exposed     4) credulous

10- The old idea that language learning is not a matter of repetition is no longer --------.

1) constant     2) analogous

3) proficient     4) tenable

PART B: Cloze Test

Directions: Read the following passage and decide which choice (1), (2), (3) or (4) best fits each

space. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

Ecology is the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their environment, and to one another.

The word ecology (11) ---------- the Greek word oikos, meaning house or place to live, and from the word logos, meaning science or study. The word was first promulgated by the German naturalist Ernst Haeckel in 1896 and used by Charles Darwin (12) --------, but it was in limited use even earlier as evidenced by the writings of the American naturalist and poet Henry David Thoreau. Man pollutes the air he breathes and the water he drinks. His concern with the problem of pollution may be purely an environmental issue (13) ------------ an ecological issue in that he wants clean, noncorrosive air and water and is concerned mainly with the quality of the physical environment. (14) the focus of his concern becomes the plants and animals that are contaminated, then the issue (15) -------- he is deling is ecological. Some of our current problems are primarily environmental, but the majority and by far the most complex of our problems are of an ecological nature.

4) deriving from

11- 1) Is derived from    2) is derived of 3) drives of    4 ) derives of

12- 1) short afterward   2) short lately   3) shortly late 4) shortly thereafter

13- 1) rather than         2) than it is      3) rater          4) rather there is

14- 1) By contrast,        2) If, however,  3) Although    4) Nevertheless,

15…1) from that           2) for which      3) in that       4) with which

Part c.Reading Comprehension

Directions: Read the following passages and choose the best choice(1), (2), (3). Then mark it on

your answer sheet.

 

PASSAGE 1:

Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. in civil law the the sources recognized as authoritative are, primarily, legislation -----especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government-----and custom.

Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the Babylonian codex Hammurabi.Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered in medieval Europe, Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily Procedural, and lacked a professional legal class. Instead a lay person, Ludex, was chosen to adjudicate. Precedents were not reported, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrexognized.Each case was to be decided afresh from the laws of the state, wich mirrors the (theoretical) unimportance of judges decisions for future cases in civil law systems today.

During the 6 th century AD in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated the laws that had existed in Rome, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before. This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis.

As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before." Western Europe, meanwhile, slowly slipped into the Dark Ages, and it was not until the 11th century that scholars in the University of Bologna rediscovered the texts and used them to interpret their own laws. Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law, continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment ; then, in the 19th century, both Farance, with the Code Civil, and Germany, With the Burgerliches Gesetzbuch, modernized their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g. Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions. Today countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America.Today countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America.

16- Civil law refers to the law which regulate-------?

1)judiciary cases     2) criminal issues      3) military affairs     4) private matters

17- Which source in NOT accepted as authentic in civil law according to the passage?

1) laws passed by government        2) laws approved by a court

3) laws enacted by a legislature      4) laws enforced by a constitution

18- If what the author says is true, the systematic organizing of laws goes back to ----.

1) the ancient Europe        2) the Roman Empire

3) the medieval Europe     4) a thousand years ago

19- According to the passage, Roman law in the days of the Roman law in the days of the Roman

Republic and Empire -------.

1) mostly enjoyed cometent persons to adjudicate

2) mostly depended on a specific course of action used by courts

3) greatly relied on professional judges in courts

4) greatly enjoyed a professional legal class

20 –If what the author says is true then any case law that developed was ………. And almost

unrecognized in the days of the Roman Republic .

1-disclosed     2-revealed     3-covered up     4-foundout

21-It is explicitly mentioned in the passage that the codification and unification of the laws by the

Emperor Justinian I………….

1- restored the entire previous legal texts called Corpus Juris Civilis

2-caused the revival of the golden age of Roman low successfully

3-restored the civil low to the peak it had reached three centuries before

4- caused the revival of one-twentieth of the mass of previous legal texts

22- what does canon low in line 21 refer to

1- Christian religious low          2-Teachings of a religion

3-Branch of judiciary system     4- Ecclesiastical religious low

23-If the author is right then the Code Civil and the Burgerliches Gesetzbuch…….

1-distorted the low systems of Japan and Korea

2-misrepresented the European legal system

3-was influenced by the low systems of Europe Japan and Korea

4-had an impact on the legal systems of Europe and outside Europe

PASSAGE 2:

Sociology of low is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of low with society and overlaps with jurisprudence economic analysis of low and more specialized subjects such as criminology . The institutions of social construction and legal frameworks are the relevant areas for the disciplines inquiry.

At first legal theorists were suspicious of the discipline . Kelsen attacked one of its founders Eugen Ehrlich who sought to make distinct the differences between positive low which lowyers learn and apply and other forms of low or social norms that regulate everyday life generally preventing conflicts from reaching lowyers and courts .

Around 1900 Max weber definedhis scientific approach to low identifying the legal rational form as a type of domination not attributable to people but to abstract norms.Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable low which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism. Another sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote in the Division of Labor in Society that as society becomes more complex the body of civil low concerned primarily with restitution grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.

24-It is mentioned in the passage that sociology low has many things in common with the following

EXCEPT………

1-the philosophy of low     2-the science of economics

3-penal treatment            4-a system of low

25-The institutins of social construction and legal frameworks are the………

1-applicable fields for the disciplines analysis

2-extraneous areas for the subjects analysis

3-applicable fields for the investigation into the crimes

4-extraneous areas for the investigation into the crimes

26-If the authoris right sociology of low was………in legal theorists view.

1-scrupulous       2-reliable        3-questionable        4-respectable

27- According to the passage, Eugen Ehrlich ---------.

1) distinguished between the laws legislated by government authority and those wich regulate everyday life

2) successfully prevented people's conflicts from reaching lawyers by introducing positive law.

3) was regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law many sociologists and legal experts.

4) defined positive law as the forms of 'law' that guides people's daily life and prevents them for

committing a crime

28- According to Max Weber, sociology of low is the legal ration form ---------.

1) not attributable                           2) of a scientific study of legal procedures

3) not assignable to people              4) of a type of domination

29- Which statement is NOT true about legal rationalism, a term used by Max Weber?

1) It was a body of disordered and predictable law.

2) It was a corpus of logical and predictable low.

3) It developed simultaneously with the expansion of capitalism.

4) It was regarded as a requirement for modern political progressions.

30- According to Emile Durkheim, the corpus of civil law ----------- in more sophisticated societies.

1) costs much more than restitution

2) is mainly involved with compensation

3) is not greater than punishments

4) does not exceed criminal laws

 

پاسخنامه                                                          ترجمه سوالات وپاسخها

۰۱---۳ ۰۷---۲ ۱۳---۳ ۱۹---۱ ۲۵---۴
۰۲---۲ ۰۸---۴ ۱۴---۲ ۲۰---۳ ۲۶---۳
۰۳---۲ ۰۹---۳ ۱۵---۱ ۲۱---۲ ۲۷---۴
۰۴---۴ ۱۰---۱ ۱۶---۲ ۲۲---۴ ۲۸---۳
۰۵---۲ ۱۱---۳ ۱۷---۱ ۲۳---۲ ۲۹---۴
۰۶---۴ ۱۲---۱ ۱۸---۲ ۲۴---۱ ۳۰---۱

[ 89/01/28 ] [ ] [ یحیی الیاسی ]

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